阿訇译经III :: 支持你生活中的跨性别者:优秀同盟军指南

#TODO

翻译自美国全国跨性别平权中心 的《Supporting the Transgender People in Your Life: A Guide to Being a Good Ally》
https://transequality.org/issues/resources/supporting-the-transgender-people-in-your-life-a-guide-to-being-a-good-ally
原文要求非商业性使用,因此译文采用 CC BY-NC 发布,切记。

绪论:成为一名同盟者,请记住这些

不存在一种固定的方式能够让你成为“完美的”同盟者。 跨性别社群是多元而复杂的。人们来自不同的国家和地域,不同的种族和民族,以及不同的信仰背景。这意味着跨性别社群中的不同成员会有不同的需要和优先事项。与之相似,也没有一种普遍适用的“正确方法”,能够应对每一种情境,或者与任意跨性别者沟通。尊重别人,尽力而为,不断努力。

尊重一名跨性别者并不需要了解对方的性别身份。 一些人并不是很了解跨性别者的种种身份认同,或者难以理解“成为跨性别者”意味着什么;这都没关系。但是我们应该尊重每一个人,即使我们对某个人的性别认同并不了解。

仅仅从外貌上并不能判断一个人是否是跨性别者。 很多人以为在遇到一个跨性别者的时候就会知道ta是,但事实未必如此。既然“统一”的跨性别经历并不存在,那跨性别者当然也不会有着固定的外貌模式。也就是说,你身边就有可能有跨性别者,而你不一定会知道。因此,即使在你觉得没有跨性别者的地方,也要体现对跨性别者的接纳和支持。

跨性别者没有固定的模式。 有些跨性别者选择医学过渡,而有些并不;有些跨性别者选择修改ta们的证件或名字,而有些并不;有些跨性别者选择改变ta们的外貌(如服饰或发型),而有些并不。同样,一些跨性别者想做其中的很多事情,但由于负担不起或者人身安全原因没有去做。跨性别者的认同并不依赖于ta们是否在性别过渡中做了或者没有做什么,而任意两位跨性别者的生命旅程都不会是完全一致的。

Continue to educate yourself. One of the simplest ways to be a strong ally is to take your education into your own hands. It’s important to have conversations with the trans people in your life, but it’s also important for you to seek out resources and information on your own. A few great places to start:

和跨性别者打交道

本节介绍在一对一或者小组场景下与跨性别个体沟通时如何保持尊重。

对一个跨性别者使用“ta本人用于自己”的语言。 没有两个相同的跨性别者,而不同的跨性别者可能会使用不同的词汇来描述自己。你应该遵从每个跨性别者的说法,因为ta们自己最清楚哪种描述最能形容自己。

如果不知道该使用何种代词或者称呼,先问一下本人。(对于汉语来说,一般是文字交流时才会用到)要想知道某个人使用的代词——他、她、ta,或者别的什么的,一种简单的办法是等待对话中自然地被提出。如果还是不确定,礼貌和尊重地提问,不要当成一项大事来对待。分享自己的代词是提出这个话题的一个好办法,例如:“你好我叫小红,可以用‘他’来称呼我。你呢?”如果你不小心使用了错误的代词,道歉然后继续说别的。把用错代词当成一件大事可能让人很尴尬,并且经常会让跨性别者得到不希望的关注。

谨慎考虑你要提出的其它问题。 你可能好奇许多话题:医学过渡,性别过渡之前的生活,性经历……向跨性别者问出这些问题,或者期待一名跨性别者能够自在地分享一些隐私的个人详细信息,未必是合适的。要确定一个话题是否合适,你可以思考一下这两个问题:

“我是否需要知道这项信息才能在对待ta们时体现尊重?”询问名字和代词基本上总是合适的,毕竟日常生活中我们称呼和提及任何人都需要这些信息。然而除了这些,你可能根本不需要知道一些你好奇的事情。例如,你极少会需要知道一名跨性别同事的手术历史。

“如果我自己被问到这个问题,我会觉得不舒服吗?”另一种判定一个问题是否合适的方法是:如果别人问你这个问题,你会有什么感受。例如,一名同事询问有关你身体的隐私部位的问题恐怕是不合适的;因此,向跨性别的同事询问类似的问题也是不合适的。

以下特定话题是很多跨性别者不希望和别人讨论的,除非对方是关系最紧密的人:

  • 出生姓名(永远不要称其为“真实姓名”!),或者开始性别转换之前的照片
  • 服用(或者不服用)的激素
  • 接受过(或者没接受过)的手术
  • 关于性关系的问题

不要替别人出柜,除非当事人允许。 某人告诉你ta是跨性别者,不代表ta告诉了所有人。一名跨性别者选择不向其它人出柜,可能是因为这么做危及自身安全,因为担心被虐待或者解雇,或者仅仅因为ta不想告诉某个人。只有跨性别者本人才有权决定谁可以知道自己的跨性别身份。类似地,多少程度的信息可以被分享,也由本人决定:例如,一名跨性别者可能无所谓别人都知道自己是 trans,但只会和关系好的朋友讨论医学事宜。一名跨性别者告诉你了ta的一些体验,不代表ta希望全世界都知道。

不要出于对跨性别者的刻板印象而提出意见或者抱怨,或者去说男性和女性应该怎么样。 人们有时想要表达对跨性别者的支持,却不经意间造成了伤害——关注点落在了跨性别者的外貌或者跨性别者是否符合了性别刻板印象上。以下是一些需要避免的例子,这些语言往往让人感觉是一种间接的抱怨:

  • “你看着就像真女人!我就看不出来你是 trans。”
  • “如果你戴上假发/剃除毛发更认真/化更浓的妆等等,你看上去会更像顺性别者。”
  • “没有哪个真男人会这么穿衣服。你应该改改,如果你不想别人知道你是跨性别者的话”
  • “我愿意和他约会,即使他是跨性别者。”

Being Outspoken

This section includes information on being an outspoken ally in larger groups, at work or at school.

Speak out in support of transgender people and transgender rights. Politely correct others if they use the wrong name or pronoun for a transgender person. More broadly, it is important to challenge anti-transgender remarks, jokes, and conversations. It can be scary to speak out, but loud and visible support for transgender rights can show transgender people that they are accepted, encourage other allies to speak out, and help change the minds of people who aren’t supportive of transgender people yet.

Support transgender people who experience discrimination. Transgender people may feel that they don’t have support from others when making complaints about discrimination or bringing their experiences to authorities, administrators, or others in position of power. Make it clear that you will support the transgender people in your life whether or not they decide to make formal complaints.

Think about how you use gendered language . Do you regularly greet groups by saying, “Ladies and gentlemen?” Do you have a coworker who refers to everyone as “guys?” Is there a particular gender-based joke your friend loves to tell? Many transgender people are fine being called ‘ladies’ or ‘gentlemen,’ but you can’t know without first asking. Consider changing your habits to avoid making assumptions about people’s gender or pronouns, and encouraging the people in your life to do the same. This can take time and effort, but is an important way to be an ally and support transgender people outside of individual, face-to-face interactions.

Learn about policies affecting transgender people. Are there any laws that protect transgender people where you live? Any policies at work or school that are inclusive of transgender people? It’s important to learn more about the challenges that transgender people face and the goals of transgender advocates, and, if you’re comfortable with it, even help push to change bad laws and policies or support good ones.

Changing Businesses, Schools, and More

Rethink gender on forms and documents. When creating forms and documents, consider whether you need to include gender at all. Many times, we default to asking for gender without considering why or how that information will be used. If you do need to ask for gender information, consider using a blank space for people to fill in as they feel comfortable, rather than a boxes marked “male” and “female,” or make it clear that people can fill in forms in a way that matches their gender identity.

Ensure everyone has access to bathrooms and other facilities. Everyone should be able to safely and comfortably use bathrooms and other gendered facilities. Push to allow people to use the bathroom that matches their gender identity rather than what’s on their ID. In addition, providing gender-neutral or private bathrooms is a great way to provide safe and comfortable space for everyone (but never require anyone to use them if they don’t want!). And if a restroom is designed for just one user at a time, make sure that it’s gender-neutral—there’s no reason to make it a men’s or women’s restroom. Take down that “Women” or “Men” sign and put up new signs that say “Restroom.”

Push for support and inclusivity, not simply tolerance. A baseline of tolerance—allowing transgender people to exist—is an important start, but we can do more. If your school brings outside speakers or hosts events, make sure that some of them include transgender people and topics. If your business donates to nonprofits, look into partnering with organizations that support the transgender community. If your organization posts community events on social media, include some from the transgender community.

Craft a transgender-inclusive nondiscrimination policy. Shifting the culture of an organization takes time. Crafting a transgender-inclusive nondiscrimination policy can help clarify how your organization supports transgender people, and ensure that there’s a way to respond to those who aren’t supportive.

改变世界!

Call your elected officials. Call your elected local, state, and federal officials to thank them when they do support transgender rights and to provide important criticism when they don’t. Visit Make Your Voice Heard for more information.

Work to pass laws in your city or state, and on the federal level, that outlaw discrimination in employment, housing, public accommodations, and education based on gender identity/expression. This could be as simple as calling your elected officials, or as involved as a letter-writing campaign or collecting signatures for a ballot measure.

Change the curriculum of medical, health, crisis response and social work programs, or bring in trainers, to teach these providers about transgender people and how to treat transgender people with respect and professionalism. Include information about the rejection, discrimination and violence that transgender people face and how to provide services and support to transgender clients.

Work with schools to make them safe for transgender students by implementing all the recommendations in our Model School District Policy on Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Students.

Work with homeless shelters to make them safe for transgender people by implementing all the recommendations in Transitioning Our Shelters: A Guide to Making Homeless Shelters Safe for Transgender People.

Work with suicide prevention, HIV prevention and treatment, alcohol and drug abuse treatment, and anti-smoking programs to ensure that their work is trans-inclusive and their staff is knowledgeable about transgender issues. Find trainers and teach them how to deal sensitively with trans people seeking assistance.

Work with police departments to have fair written policies with regard to interacting with transgender members of the public, regardless if they are seeking assistance or being arrested, and make sure all police officers are trained on following the policy and treating transgender people with respect.

Work with jail and prison systems to ensure the respectful and safe treatment of transgender prisoners, starting with implementing the recommendations of Standing with LGBT Prisoners.

Take a step back. Transgender people come from every population, and are of all races, religions, ages, and more. There are transgender immigrants, employees, prisoners, sex workers, and every other category imaginable. Make an effort to be as inclusive as possible of all kinds of transgender people when working to support transgender communities.

Putting it All into Action

Hopefully by this point you feel armed with the tools and knowledge needed to be an ally to the transgender people in your life, as well as the larger transgender community. Remember: no one is able to be the perfect ally at all times, so it’s important to provide as much support as you can and to learn from the mistakes you may make along the way.

感谢您成为跨性别者可靠的同盟军!

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锻炼了我的英语七选五能力?

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好东西
战略性mark